Thursday, August 27, 2020

Service Marketing and Product Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Administration Marketing and Product Marketing - Essay Example Model, if a vehicle maker sells maintenance agreement administrations against a vehicle model the promoting parts of such administrations are connected with the exhibition of the item in the market section and thus if the item is as of now selling effectively, the related assistance bundles can be sold without numerous issues. Nonetheless, in the event that administrations are sold free of items, at that point their showcasing methodologies should be unique. Coviello and Brodie et al. (2002. pp42) introduced an exact speculation that the organizations selling items draw in with their clients in more value-based way though the organizations selling administrations connect with their clients in increasingly social way. Truth be told if the work done by these specialists is broke down intently, it uncovers that the essential contrast lies in the manner the system of promoting is picked - regardless of whether for items or for administrations. The analysts introduced four approachs of ad vertising - Transaction Marketing, Database Marketing, Interaction Marketing and Network Marketing. The selection of business sectors relies on the manner in which income is required from the purchasers to the firm - once or repeating. Any advertising system focusing on normal income from shoppers will incline toward relationship promoting. Some advertising tacticians like to embrace pluralistic methodology of going with both relationship and value-based promoting relying on the requests of the market portions. Model, ease items and administrations might be advanced increasingly through value-based advertising while premium items and administrations might be advanced progressively through relationship showcasing. Database and system promoting are generally mind boggling and subsequently are of lesser inclination among advertising experts. Is Product or Services promoting on a very basic level related Coviello and Brodie et al. (2002. pp42) contended that observationally the administrations and item advertising zones have been dealt with in an unexpected way. The commitment directs are more in administrations advertising than items promoting. In addition, utilization of IT empowered instruments bring about more effect on clients in the administrations advertising than item showcasing. This is on the grounds that the desires for clients from administrations are more mind boggling than from items. Krishnan and Ramaswamy et al. (1999. pp 1197-1200) introduced a point by point research on consumer loyalty in banking and money related administrations industry. They introduced that dissimilar to assembling enterprises that produce completely unmistakable items, the money related administrations industry offers productized administrations that are conveyed through different channels to the clients and thus the range of client desires augments given that their recurrence of connections wi th the organizations are substantially more. If there should arise an occurrence of items, a customer may call the administration lines just if a flaw or deformity is distinguished or probably some ease of use highlights are not satisfactory. These exchanges are one time in nature that may happen hardly any occasions in a year. In any case, in administrations ventures the clients interface with the organizations again and again whereby their involvement with each connection includes in building the discernments. Thus, if there should be an occurrence of administration

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Ancient Egyptian Art and Ancient Japanese Art Essay Example for Free

Antiquated Egyptian Art and Ancient Japanese Art Essay Antiquated Egyptian workmanship during this time was a hotshot of this human progress. Old Egyptian Art ordinarily portray god, goddess and creatures, as a result of their high strict ways. Egytian craftsmanship is still today perceived as some the most complex works man has ever observed. I decided to masterpieces to look into Egyptian and Japanese craftsmanship. I will begin with Egyptian Art first. The Statue of Memi and Sabu Pair is a three dimensional gem delineating a couple standing together These sculptures was set in a serdab, the concealed sculpture chamber found in no imperial tomb houses of prayer of the Old Kingdom. This time of craftsmanship was Egypt most creative occasions on account of Pyramids and works like this being made. The Egyptians accepted that the soul of the perished could utilize such a sculpture as a home and enter it so as to profit by endowments of food that were brought to the contribution sanctuary of the tomb (The Metropolitan Museum of Art). The material utilized Giza Painted Limestone as a major aspect of Old Kingdom, Dynasty 4, between 2575â€2465 b. c. This goes in with the hour of what I examine early that Egyptians having strict conviction they regularly romanticize and represent there dead. The posture is surprising in light of the fact that Memi is returning Sabus grasp by hanging his arm around her shoulders indicating a connection between the two (The Metropolitan Museum of Art). Second show-stopper I picked is Ancient Japanese Art. Japanese Ancient Art is one the most powerful craftsmanship periods. They were the first to create ceramics. Old Japan earthenware Go far back as the eleventh BC. Crafted by craftsmanship I decided to investigate is Storage container made of ceramic mud unglazed in Middle Jomon period between 2500â€1500 B. C. The ceramic food vessel, which originated from the Aomori Prefecture in northeastern Japan, is amazing for the fine nature of its mud and its modern improvement. The string checked herringbone design was duplicated by ropes tied together and bent in inverse ways (The Metropolitan Museum of Art). Like the Egyptians they had very detail of work that represents the way of life. Japanese utilize these stonewares to store food and eating. The explanation behind their huge utilization of ceramics was presumably so huge on the grounds that the way of life was consistently in a hurry around then. All in all the two works of the two show-stoppers show tremendous complexity and represent a style based off their way of life convictions and requirements. Egyptian Art may have more tremendous phrasing than Japanese Art. Both have had an effect on society today.

Friday, August 21, 2020

IIT HSEE Essay Topics - How to Write IIT HSEE Essay Topics

IIT HSEE Essay Topics - How to Write IIT HSEE Essay TopicsWriting an IIT HSEE essay topic can be a daunting task, especially if you have not done so before. However, this need not be the case, if you follow some guidelines that will make the task much easier and will not require you to put in a lot of time.IIT HSEE essay topics are divided into two parts, one being the introduction and the other the body. The introduction has many different variations. You could even go the more conventional route and introduce yourself and briefly describe what the essay is about.After the introduction, the body of the essay topic comes next. While some people choose to write an entire essay on a single subject, there are those who prefer to write a broad overview and then fill in the details with their own examples. If this is the case, you may want to present the topics in a list form, as well as by order.At this point, you may want to just do a brief summary of the topics in the body of the essay . Many of these can be found online or on the IIT campus. You should also mention any future research that you may want to do, such as how to use the Internet to help in your studies.The last thing that you have to do is to focus on writing your conclusion. However, make sure that it does not take more than one paragraph to say all that you need to.When you write your IIT HSEE essay topics, remember that you do not necessarily have to cover all the topics in the course. You should be able to write an essay that is concise, yet powerful, and include everything that you will need to.This, however, depends on the topic that you would like to write about. Before you begin writing, you should try to explore your subject thoroughly, without rushing. Do not forget to revise if needed as well.There are many people who feel that it is easy to write IIT HSEE essay topics, but the truth is that you can easily become overwhelmed by the topic. Make sure that you do not get overwhelmed, though, a nd that you are able to find the right words that you need to.

Monday, May 25, 2020

Cyberbullying Direct Victimization in Schools and to...

Nearly a quarter of all students ages 6-19 are bullied or harassed at school as a result of their beliefs, race, nationality, sexual orientation, and more (â€Å"Bullying†). When examining bullying of LGBT youth, it is crucial to consider direct bullying and biased comments made by students. The most noticeable remarks used in schools is when the word â€Å"gay† is used in a negative way, usually to mean that something is â€Å"stupid† or â€Å"dumb.† About 70% of LGBT students state they have often heard these types of remarks. Direct victimization in schools happens more regularly among LGBT youth than among heterosexual peers. In a school climate survey of LGBT youth, students were asked about experiences of verbal harassment, physical harassment, and†¦show more content†¦LGBT youth that are bullied tend to have a much lower GPA than those who are not bullied or harassed. Bullying a person based on gender, has been associated statistically with greater anxiety, missing school, depression, and additional psychological health problems. Other research furthermore shows that LGBT youth, in contrast to non-homosexuals, are much more probable to attempt or consider suicide (â€Å"Hinduja†). Many teens that have dealt with bullying are hesitant to tell of their experiences or inform a trusted adult of the incident (â€Å"Bullying†). Research has shown that students feel safer in schools that have anti- discrimination and anti-harassment policies that include sexual orientation and gender identity, gay-straight alliances, and educators who have engaged in professional development regarding sexual orientation and gender identity, compared to schools that do not have these safe school practices (â€Å"Horn†). Safe school practices can be a way to help LGBT adolescents in and out of school, although not every school has these practices. There are many different supports that can be considered safe school practices. Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA) clubs, school anti-bullying policies that provide safety based on sexual orientation, gender expression, or gender identity, positive education about LGBT history, people, and events, and supportive school staff can provid e direct benefits to LGBT students (â€Å"Kosciw†). Even thoughShow MoreRelatedCyber Bullying: A Study of Long Term Effects on Adolescent Cyber Bullying1561 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction: Cyber bullying is a topic that has been researched many times. As technology changes, it is important that research is kept up to date on how victimization can affect present and future psychosocial adjustment issues. Cyber bullying is defined as victimization that intends to harm another through electronic means, where individuals can harm without physical interaction. (Tokunaga, 2010). Cyber bullying requires little planning and there is little chance of being caught. It is importantRead MoreBullying Is An Old Phenomenon That Only Been The Subject Of More Systematic Research?885 Words   |  4 Pagesthat only recently has been the subject of more systematic research. The definition of bullying is very specific – it is the chronic occurrence of intentional aggressive behavior that occurs in interpersonal relationships characterized by an imbalance of power. The perpetrator (bully) or the target (victim) can be a group or an individual (Olweus, 1994). On the other hand, pe er victimization is a broader term defined as ‘‘The experience among children of being a target of the aggressive behaviourRead MoreThe And Parental Authority Questionnaire1535 Words   |  7 PagesThe last study was conducted by Ritter (2005). The participants for this study were drawn from the junior and senior classes of a large suburban high school in the Midwest, with participants ranging between the ages of 16 and 18 (Ritter, 2005). The researcher used the Individual Protective Factors Index (Springer Phillips, 1997) and the Parental Authority Questionnaire (Buri, 1991). The goal was to determine if an association existed between the developments of resiliency and parenting stylesRead MoreThe Effects Of Bullying On Different Adults People2469 Words   |  10 Pagesphysical, school, and mental health concerns. These children are more likely to associate with depression and anxiety, amplified feelings of sadness and solitude, changes in sleep and eating patterns, loss of attentiveness in activities they used to like, health illnesses, decreased educational achievement like, GPA, standardized test scores, and school involvement. They are most likely to miss, skip, or drop out of school, and although children don’t usually retaliate, 12 out of 15 school shootingRead MoreHow Gender And The Type Of Bullying Correlates With Each Other919 Words   |  4 Pagesbullying correlates with each other. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the percentage of physical threats or injuries in schools in 2011 is about 10% ( On the other hand, non-violent forms of bullying was reported at a higher percentage such as teasing (18%), gossipping (18%), cyberbullying (9%), or exclusion (6%) ( Despite the reported statistics, the focus is greater on physical and violent bullying exhibited particularlyRead MoreThe Relationship Between Peer Victimization And Academic Achievement1354 Words   |  6 PagesI have been reading about the relationship between peer victimization (bullying, cyberbullying, and/or other types of abuse) and academic achievement. By design, I chose studies that were each focused on a participant groups of a different age. Gaining a deeper understanding of these potential connections would be valuable to anyone involved in creating positive environments where children and teens can learn and thrive. Specific stakeholders who might benefit include parents, family membersRead MoreThis Source Is Very Closely Related To My Research Question1900 Words   |  8 Pagesquestion regarding age and attitudes towards cyberbullying. The study broke down the participants into five age groups and examined their cyberbullying attitudes, perpetrations, and technology time. It determined that there is a negative correlation between age and these variables, showing that generally, those who are younger are more likely to believe that cyberbullying is a major concern for school-going minors. That being said, the youngest and oldest groups generally are less likely to have this attitudeRead MoreTeen Suicide : A Victim Of Severe Cyberbullying3502 Words   |  15 Pagesday, she met a boy on MySpace and the two became very close. Megan was the happiest she had been in her entire life, and under her parents’ watchful eyes, she continued to flourish. However, on October 16, 2006, Megan became the victim of severe cyberbullying. The boy she was talking to began to say hurtful things to her, which quickly spiraled into a situation where many of her â€Å"friends† on social media began posting derogatory comments about her. Despite her parents’ pleas to get off the InternetRead MoreBullying : The Causes And Effects Of Cyberbullying1060 Words   |  5 PagesBullying by electric forms of contact, better known as cyberbullying, has become an epidemic throughout the world in the last few years. While those affected may not be harmed physically, mentally and emotionally they are tortured and some never recover. For youths who have been cyberbullied, it is reported that they have a higher chance of anxiety and also depression. They are also more likely to have problems in their personal li ves and in school. Those affected can have thoughts that lead them toRead MoreThe Effects Of Bullying On Mental Health And Safety Of Adolescents3354 Words   |  14 Pages Bullying and Cyberbullying Chaya Gitty Chopp Daemen College â€Æ' Abstract The impact of bullying in all forms on the mental health and safety of adolescents is of particular interest, especially in the wake of new methods of bullying that victimize youths through technology: cyber bullying. Its significant link to internalizing difficulties can lead to depression and suicide. Given the ever increasing rate of accessibility to technology in both schools and homes, these findings underscore

Friday, May 15, 2020

Great Britain Geography, History, and Economy Facts

Great Britain is an island located within the British Isles and it is the ninth-largest island in the world and the largest in Europe. It is located to the northwest of continental Europe and it is home to the United Kingdom, which includes Scotland, England, Wales, and Northern Ireland (not actually on the island of Great Britain). Great Britain has a total area of 88,745 square miles (229,848 sq km) and a population of about 65 million people (2016 estimate). The island of Great Britain is known for the global city of London, England, as well as smaller cities like Edinburgh, Scotland. In addition, Great Britain is known for its history, historic architecture, and natural environment. Fast Facts: Great Britain Official Name: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandCapital: LondonPopulation: 65,105,246 (2018)Official Language: English  Currency: British pound (GBP)Form of Government: Parliamentary constitutional monarchy; a commonwealth realmClimate: Temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current; more than one-half of the days are overcastTotal Area: 94,058 square miles (243,610 square kilometers)Highest Point: Ben Nevis at 4,413 feet (1,345 meters)  Lowest Point: The Fens at -13 feet (-4 meters) Over 500,000 Years of History The island of Great Britain has been inhabited by early humans for at least 500,000 years. It is believed that these humans crossed a land bridge from continental Europe at that time. Modern humans have been in Great Britain for about 30,000 years and until about 12,000 years ago, archeological evidence shows that they moved back and forth between the island and continental Europe via a land bridge. This land bridge closed and Great Britain became an island at the end of the last glaciation. A History of Invasions Throughout its modern human history, Great Britain was invaded several times. For example, in 55 BCE, the Romans invaded the region and it became a part of the Roman Empire. The island was also controlled by various tribes and was invaded several times. In 1066, the island was a part of the Norman Conquest and this began the cultural and political development of the area. Throughout the decades following the Norman Conquest, Great Britain was ruled by several different kings and queens and it was also part of several different treaties between the countries on the island. About the Name Britain The use of the name Britain dates back to the time of Aristotle, but the term Great Britain was not officially used until 1474 when a marriage proposal between Edward IV of Englands daughter Cecily and James IV of Scotland was written. Today, the term is used to specifically refer to the largest island within the United Kingdom or to the unit of England, Scotland, and Wales. What Great Britain Encapsulates Today In terms of its politics, the name Great Britain refers to England, Scotland, and Wales because they are on the United Kingdoms largest island. In addition, Great Britain also includes the outlying areas of Isle of Wight, Anglesey, the Isles of Scilly, the Hebrides, and the remote island groups of Orkney and Shetland. These outlying areas are considered part of Great Britain because they are parts of England, Scotland, or Wales. Where Is Great Britain on a Map? Great Britain is located to the northwest of continental Europe and to the east of Ireland. The North Sea and the English Channel separate it from Europe. The Channel Tunnel, the longest undersea rail tunnel in the world, connects it with continental Europe. The topography of Great Britain consists mainly of low, gently rolling hills in the eastern and southern portions of the island and hills and low mountains in the western and northern regions. The Regions Climate The climate of Great Britain is temperate and it is moderated by the Gulf Stream. The region is known for being cool and cloudy during the winter and the western parts of the island are windy and rainy because they are more influenced by the ocean. The eastern parts are drier and less windy. London, the largest city on the island, has an average January low temperature of 36 degrees (2.4 C) and a July average temperature of 73 degrees (23 C). Fauna and Animal Species Despite its large size, the island of Great Britain has a small amount of fauna. This is because it has been rapidly industrialized in recent decades and this has caused habitat destruction across the island. As a result, there are very few large mammal species in Great Britain and rodents like squirrels, mice and beaver make up 40% of the mammal species there. In terms of Great Britains flora, there is a large variety of trees and 1,500 species of wildflower. Population and Ethnic Groups Great Britain has a population of more than 65 million people (2018 estimate). The main ethnic group of Great Britain is British—particularly those who are Cornish, English, Scottish, or Welsh. The Main Cities There are several large cities on the island of Great Britain but the largest is London, the capital of England and the United Kingdom. Other large cities include Birmingham, Bristol, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Leeds, Liverpool, and Manchester. About the Economy Great Britains United Kingdom has the third-largest economy in Europe. The majority of the UKs and Great Britains economy is within the service and industrial sectors but there is also ​a  small amount of agriculture. The main industries are machine tools, electric power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment, shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles, electronics and communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper products, food processing, textiles, and clothing. Agricultural products include are cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables cattle, sheep, poultry, and fish.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Advantage of School Uniforms Essay - 752 Words

Did you know that as many as twenty-five percent of the nation?s pubic elementary, middle, and junior high schools have successfully implemented a school uniform policy? (Isaacson, 1998) School uniforms greatly benefit both the students and faculty by creating an atmosphere in which the students are able to get the most out of their education. I believe that all students should wear school uniforms regardless of whether or not the school is public. Below are clear-cut arguments in favor of school uniforms. First, one of the chief benefits of school uniforms is their ability to make schools safer. Studies have shown that they help to reduce gang influences. (Isaacson, 1998) Many gang members wear particular types of colors and clothes†¦show more content†¦Second, school uniforms helps to eliminate socio-economical barriers. Many students come from diverse backgrounds; however, inside the walls of the school, economic advantages and disadvantages are no longer obvious. (R, 2000) Parents? incomes no longer determine how well his or her son or daughter dresses the next day at school. Uniforms help to erase the tense cultural and economic differences among the students. Not only do students and teachers benefit from the wearing of uniforms, but parents do as well. Parents are no longer pressured to buy the latest fashions; therefore they spend less money on clothes and fashionable apparel. Third, school uniforms help to promote structure and discipline inside of the classroom. This structure creates a strong learning environment and improves the students? behavior and attitude towards schooling. In 1998 a study done by The National Association of Elementary School Principals and Land?s End discovered that schools with an active uniform policy had almost a twenty percent better discipline rate than that of a non-active uniform policy. Studies also showed that student achievement was increased by ten percent. (NAESP, 1998) Because of the learning atmosphere created by uniforms, students are more likely to concentrate on their schoolwork and strive for great grades. Over the many years of this ongoing debate there has only been one case in which the state lost the courtroom ruling,Show MoreRelatedAdvantages Of School Uniforms1095 Words   |  5 PagesSchool Uniforms: The Drawbacks A young female student tears an envelope open and skims through it. The note told that the town was going to vote on whether school uniforms should be issued or not in schools. Then, she swiftly darts for her parent’s bedroom, swerving through her four siblings in the process, to alert her mother and father of the newly received letter. She worried if the town agreed to add in school uniforms, for her parents could not afford five school uniforms. Her family was onRead MoreEssay on The Advantages of School Uniforms530 Words   |  3 Pagesgood view early in the morning. That’s why the school should implement a uniform policy. Uniforms should be mandatory in school. Uniforms make the school appear more professional. Also with uniforms students won’t compare themselves with each other. Moreover uniforms can help students save time. Additionally parents won’t have to waste so much money on clothes hence will have a better budget. A major reason that schools should have uniforms is because students will get along better. TheyRead MoreEssay on Implementation of School Uniforms635 Words   |  3 PagesImplementation of School Uniforms The topic of school uniforms has been highly debated for many years. Many would think it would be the teachers versus the pupils in this debate but they would be wrong, this argument has members from both sides fighting for and against it. In this essay I will look at the topic from both sides and be un-objective in my writing. Many of the arguments made in favour of school uniforms have something to do with the safety of the school communityRead MoreShould School Uniforms Be Mandatory?918 Words   |  4 PagesShould schools have the right to make uniforms mandatory for their students? Some people don’t think so and they argue against the civil liberties that such a mandate would violate. While the opposing opposition thinks that school uniforms belong in the school system, in order to help reduce some of the issues students may face because of their clothes. Although school uniforms for students may have many negative effects, school uniforms may help with reducing the amount of distractions, thereforeRead MoreSchool Uniforms Should Be Implemented Throughout K 12 Public Schools1258 Words   |  6 PagesBobby Mishra Mrs. Bezemek Apps of Comp 24 November 2014 School Uniforms According to a study done by the National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP) said that the popularity of school uniforms are clearly on the rise. Now more schools have uniforms rising from 28 percent to 49 percent in thirteen years (Tucker). School uniforms can help improve behavior leading to safer schools and safer communities. School uniforms can also lead to an increase in academic behavior leading to betterRead MoreWhat s The Whole Point Of School Uniforms?801 Words   |  4 Pagesthe whole point of school uniforms? Do we really need to spend billions of dollars on them? Let’s express our style with the clothes and the colors we wear by getting rid of school uniforms! School uniforms make the school plain and we need to express our own style, make it colorful! School uniforms don’t change the way people act, and you can still bully others. Proponents say that school uniforms are an advantage on how to judge an intruder, but opponents say that scho ol uniforms are a disadvantageRead MoreBenefits Of School Uniforms In School798 Words   |  4 PagesBeneficial Clothing for Schools Around the world, several schools require their students to wear school uniforms. Many students do not adore this idea, but do they truly know how it benefits them. Some wonder if these uniforms actually improve their learning and experiences in school. Numerous questions have arisen when schools consider this idea. The debate today is growing, as schools try to figure out how they can enhance their school. There are various improvements in school systems when they reachRead MoreSchool Uniforms And The School Uniform Policy964 Words   |  4 Pageslearning-oriented schools for their children. In 1996, President Bill Clinton challenged schools that â€Å" †¦ if it means that teenagers will stop killing each other over designer jackets, then our public schools should be able to require their students to wear school uniforms.† (Boutelle 36). As a result, the Manual on School Uniforms was issued by the government to provide guidelines for those considering establishing a sch ool uniform policy. Ever since, proponents and opponents of mandated school uniforms haveRead MoreShould School Uniforms Be Mandated?944 Words   |  4 PagesShould School Uniforms Be Mandated in Public Schools? Educators and parents, alike, want safe, respectful learning-oriented schools for their children. In 1996, President Bill Clinton challenged schools â€Å"to teach character education, †¦ And if it means that teenagers will stop killing each other over designer jackets, then our public schools should be able to require their students to wear school uniforms.† (Boutelle 36). As a result, the Manual on School Uniforms was issued by the government toRead MoreSchool Uniform Is Good Or Bad?966 Words   |  4 PagesSCHOOL UNIFORMS The school uniform is good or bad? This is a question debated in many schools. School uniforms have many advantages and disadvantages; it depends on the thought and opinion of each person. Some people think that school uniforms display the discipline, obedience of students and it helps students can save time in choosing the outfit every day; it helps poor students have equality with everyone in school; it helps students be distinct from other people and it makes students feel proud

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Science Technology and society free essay sample

Nearly all nations now recognize that science and technology are of vital importance to their development. Yet science and technology (ST) cannot just be imported as commodities from foreign producers. For a country to enjoy the full benefit of science and technology, they must be deemed critical to the effort to achieve economic well-being and social justice, integrated into the societal decisionmaking structure, and systematically supported by policies that nurture the nation’s capacities and indigenous talent. Such interactions require the following: †¢ Policy for ST: A national commitment, by the public and private sectors alike, to promote science and technology; †¢ ST for policy: A mechanism for providing ST inputs into decisionmaking; †¢ Dissemination of knowledge: Procedures for broad public participation in critical issues, especially regarding their ST aspects. 2. 1 National ST strategies identify priorities for addressing critical needs Innovation Program (PPKIP), Chinese Academy of Sciences The PPKIP is an ambitious 12-year project (1998-2010) led by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) to reform and revitalize China’s science and technology infrastructure. We will write a custom essay sample on Science Technology and society or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page By 2005, the Chinese Academy of Science plans to have: †¢ significantly enhanced scientific output in fundamental research in strategic areas; †¢ increased the numbers of scientific research personnel in multidisciplinary and frontier areas; †¢ created new joint laboratories with universities; †¢ established long-term cooperative relationships with distinguished foreign universities, research institutions, and companies; †¢ transformed 15-20 academy-affiliated research institutions into for-profit corporate entities; †¢ built high-tech incubators jointly with local governments; †¢ introduced venture-capital mechanisms through creation of CAS-managed venturecapital funds; and †¢ sold shares of Chinese Academy’s companies in stock markets, both at home and abroad, thus attracting capital for the rapid development of high-tech enterprises. english. cas. ac. cn IAC Report | Science, technology, and society 37 BOX Many of the recommendations in Chapters 3 through 6 that follow can be seen as parts of national policies for the promotion of science and technology. Recommendations on human-resource development, institution-building for science and technology, establishing new modes of cooperation for the private and public domains, and the generation of new funding mechanisms will all require support from a nation’s leaders, both in and out of government. There is a need to provide a coherent framework for these actions. In each nation, a national ST strategy should be developed by the government in consultation with scientific, engineering, and medical academies; the professional societies of the country; and its industrial sector. The strategy should benefit from the experiences of other countries, and it should spell out the government’s commitments to funding; standards of excellence; openness and dissemination of knowledge; regional consortia and networks; private-public interactions; and partnerships with others – locally, regionally, and globally. (See Box 10 for a description of an ambitious strategy in China to upgrade its ST enterprise. ) The practice of science in particular cannot be undertaken without a profound adherence to what has been called the values of science – a commitment to truth and honor, a certain constructive dissent among scientists, and the arbitration of disputes through rigorous methods. BOX 10 Pilot Project of the Knowledge But science is seldom left only to the scientists. Research-agenda priorities derive not just from the wishes of scientists or their interest in certain problems but also from factors such as national needs, the availability of funding, access to tools of research, and the commercial prospects for deploying the resulting technologies. What gets studied, in effect, is often decided by nonscientists. Some governments’ restrictions on certain biological research areas, for example, or a nation’s response to the unavailability of industrial funding for specific (often long-term) areas of research and development with limited commercial payback, are instances of how governments deploy scientific capacity in research in response to societal goals. The application of science for utilitarian purposes, however, usually depends on earlier basic research that was driven by scientists’ intellectual curiosity. Allowing some space to satisfy this drive, therefore, should be an element of any program to increase capacity building in ST and maintain its productivity over the long term. The exact balance between basic, strategic, applied, and adaptive research will vary from country to country, as will the domains in which the resources and talents should be deployed. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that old classifications between basic and applied, as well as the boundaries between traditional disciplines, are being overtaken by events. New ST research increasingly involves multiple disciplines and often requires conceptual and applied skills alike. Recommendations Every nation should develop an ST strategy that specifies the national priorities for research and development and spells out national funding commitments. National governments should develop national strategies for science and technology in full consultation with the country’s science, engineering, and medical academies, its professional societies, and the industrial sector. The national strategies should include support for basic science and recognize the need for high-level training to develop, as much as possible, national competence in selected frontier areas of science and technology that are most suitable for sustainable economic development and social well-being. National funding commitments for science and technology should rise to at least 1 percent – preferably 1. 5 percent – of Gross Domestic Product for each developing nation, and should be disbursed using a merit-based approach. 38 IAC Report | Science, technology, and society 2. 2 Independent scientific advice improves decisionmaking for public policies BOX 11 World Health Organization promotes The effectiveness of government programs can be greatly increased if inputs and independent review are provided by scientific, engineering, and health experts – honest brokers who bridge the gap between what is technically possible and politically achievable in areas such as agriculture, education, energy, environment, and health. For example, many international deliberations, running the gamut from intellectual property rights to environmental and health regulations, require governments to fully understand the ST premises that underlie the decisions they are negotiating. Each country therefore needs to create suitable mechanisms for providing impartial scientific and technological advice to government policymakers. Informed and reliable counsel could come from specially appointed committees of experts, standing multidisciplinary advisory bodies, independent institutions such as merit-based academies of science, engineering, or medicine, or from professional societies. (Box 11 offers an example of how ST capacity is needed to inform government policies on emerging health issues. ) The need for local biomedical expertise in all  nations, complemented by other health professionals worldwide, has been demonstrated by the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), an illness first reported in 2003 in Asia, North America, and Europe. The World Health Organization (WHO) is coordinating an international investigation with the assistance of the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network – a collaboration of existing institutions and networks that pool human and technical resources for rapid identification, confirmation, and response with regard to disease outbreaks of global importance. The Network  keeps the international health community constantly alerted to the threat of new outbreaks and provides appropriate technical assistance to  affected states by strengthening local infrastructure and capacity to reduce illness and prevent disease spread. Since its inception, the Network  has addressed health concerns in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, China, Cote d’Ivoire,  Egypt, Ethiopia, Gabon, Kosovo, India, Madagascar, Pakistan, Republic of the Congo, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Uganda,  Yemen, and Zanzibar. national capacity to confront new diseases Recommendations Each national government should establish trusted indigenous mechanisms for obtain- ing advice on scientific and technological questions related to policies, programs, and international negotiations. Each nation involved in the development, production, or use of new technologies, such as those deriving from biotechnology, should have the means to assess and manage their benefits and risks. Governments should therefore ensure that indigenous ST capacities are in place (with international inputs when necessary) not only for effective adoption of a new technology, but also for help in implementing public-health, humansafety, and environmental guidelines or regulations that address potential side-effects of the new technology. The possibility of long-term effects should be kept in mind when setting up such systems, which must remain fully adaptable to rapid advances in scientific and engineering knowledge. The coordination of such efforts among nations to permit the sharing of experience and the standardization of some types of risk assessment is highly desirable. IAC Report | Science, technology, and society 39 BOX www. who. int/en/ 2. 3 The public requires dissemination of new knowledge for addressing critical issues The world’s communications networks have begun to give each individual scientist or technologist the means to help close the knowledge gap between industrialized and developing nations. Through the global system that the ST community is creating on the Internet, local investigators can stay up to date on, and participate in, cutting-edge research. And because these indigenous professionals generally understand their nation’s culture and can easily communicate with its people, they are uniquely placed to be disseminators of advanced knowledge and know-how to other critical local actors – greatly increasing the likelihood that the new technologies will be well adapted to that society’s needs and cultures. Any nation without such a core of scientists and technologists can expect to fall farther and farther behind the rest of the world. Countries at different stages of development will of course need different types of ST expertise, and they may be expected to invest in science and technology at different rates. But even in the poorest nations, a substantial enrollment in higher education is essential, particularly in science and engineering courses. For that to happen, ST practitioners should become sufficiently involved in education at all levels to help generate the human capital on which so much of development depends. Beyond communicating among themselves, with policymakers and their students, the ST community should regularly interact with the public. Many issues require public debate, and scientists and engineers should help inform this debate by engaging with the media. For its part, the media should consistently seek out the most reliable sources in order to present the issues accurately and effectively. 40 IAC Report | Science, technology, and society Recommendations With the help of the ST communities, each national and state government should encourage innovation in disseminating the results of publicly or privately funded research and in turning them into new products and services that address national or local needs. Such efforts could include: †¢ Consultative services, provided by national, state, or city research institutions, in areas such as agriculture, water and land management, housing, and health. †¢ Cooperative partnerships between local (state, city) entities and research institutions for sharing up-to-date information of local relevance. †¢ Empowerment, for periods of time, of social entrepreneurs for supplying products and services significantly below market prices to people in need. †¢ ‘Information kiosks,’ either publicly funded or for-profit, to help distribute useful scientific information to the public. The information might consist of short publications prepared by scientific organizations, such as the recent ones being promoted by the Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS), or reliable news obtained from the Internet. Each nation’s media should assume major responsibility for educating the public in ST-related issues. A wide array of communications technologies – print, television, radio, cellular tele- phone, World Wide Web, the Internet, among others – should be utilized in disseminating to the public the results and public policy implications of publicly or privately funded research that addresses national or local needs. The ST community should seriously exercise its obligation to pay more attention to the media and participate more fully in public discussions and debates. In such interactions, practitioners should endeavor to explain technical issues in non-technical language. Regarding scientific or technical matters on which public-policy choices are to be made, the media should seek out the best ST sources for their articles and programs. In a similar spirit, reporters and editors should not artificially generate controversy by seeking out minority positions that appear to highlight the adversarial aspects of STrelated questions, particularly when the professional community has actually achieved broad consensus. Truly controversial questions should be presented to the public in terms of explaining the scientific and technological aspects of the dispute without bias or editorializing (except on clearly indicated opinion pages). IAC Report | Science, technology, and society 41